In the United States, the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing, commonly known as the "Triple Crown", is a series of three Thoroughbred horse races for three-year-old horses run in May and early June of each year, consisting of the Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes, and Belmont Stakes. While Daily Racing Form writer Charles Hatton is commonly credited with originating the term to reference these races in 1930, they were referred to that name at least as early as 1923. Only eleven horses have ever won the Triple Crown, none since 1978. Of the trainers of those eleven horses, Sunny Jim Fitzsimmons won the Triple Crown twice (the only trainer to do so), and another trainer, D. Wayne Lukas, scored a Triple Crown scored a Triple Crown as a trainer in sweeping the 1995 races with different horses, the only individual to do so. The three American Classic Races are collectively known as the U.S. Triple Crown. As of the completion of the 2008 season, the races have attracted 3.889 entrants (a figure that counts a given horse twice if it enters two of teh races). Of these, 274 horses have won a single leg of the Triple Crown, 50 have won two of the races (21 for the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes, 18 for the Preakness and Belmont Stakes, and 11 for the Derby and Belmont), and 11 have won all three races. The 11 Triple Crown winners are: Sir Barton (1919), Gallant Fox (1930), Omaha (1935), War Admiral (1937), Whirlaway (1941), Count Fleet (1943), Assault (1946), Citation (1948), Secretariat (1973), Seattle Slew (1977), and Affirmed (1978). The Triple Crown Trophy, commissioned in 1950, is awarded to a Triple Crown winner.
Winners of the Triple Crown
At completion of the 2008 season, the three Triple Crown races have attracted 3,889 entrants. Of these, 274 horses have won a single leg of the Triple Crown, 50 horses have won two of the races (21 the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes, 18 the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes, and 11 the Kentucky Derby and Belmont Stakes), and eleven horses have won all three races. Pillorywon both the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes in 1922, a year when it was impossible to win the Triple Crown because the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes were run on the same day.
Whirlaway is the only horse ever to win the "superfecta" of the Triple Crown and the Travers Stakes.
|1919||Sir Barton||Johnny Loftus||H. Guy Bedwell||J. K. L. Ross||John E. Madden|
|1930||Gallant Fox||Earl Sande||Jim Fitzsimmons||Belair Stud||Belair Stud|
|1935||Omaha||Willie "Smokey" Saunders||Jim Fitzsimmons||Belair Stud||Belair Stud|
|1937||War Admiral||Charley Kurtsinger||George H. Conway||Samuel D. Riddle||Samuel D. Riddle|
|1941||Whirlaway||Eddie Arcaro||Ben A. Jones||Calumet Farm||Calumet Farm|
|1943||Count Fleet||Johnny Longden||Don Cameron||Fannie Hertz||Fannie Hertz|
|1946||Assault||Warren Mehrtens||Max Hirsch||King Ranch||King Ranch|
|1948||Citation||Eddie Arcaro||Horace A. Jones||Calumet Farm||Calumet Farm|
|1973||Secretariat||Ron Turcotte||Lucien Laurin||Meadow Stable||Christopher Chenery|
|1977||Seattle Slew||Jean Cruguet||William H. Turner, Jr.||Karen L. Taylor||Ben S. Castleman|
|1978||Affirmed||Steve Cauthen||Laz Barrera||Harbor View Farm||Harbor View Farm|
2015 American Pharoah Victor Espinoza Bob Baffert Ahmed Zayat Zayat Stables
2018 Justify Mike Smith Bob Baffert Winstar Farm John D Gunther
Both Jim Fitzsimmons and Bob Baffert each trained two horses to win the Triple Crown, Fitzsimmons training the sire/son combination of 1930 winner Gallant Fox and 1935 winner Omaha, and Baffert with 2015 ‘s American Pharaoh and Justify in 2018. Gallant Fox‘s and Omaha’s Triple Crowns also marked the first time that an owner and the first time that a breeder, Belair Stud holding both duties, would have a repeat win of the Triple Crown.
Eddie Arcaro is the only jockey to ride two horses to the Triple Crown, jockeying 1941 winner Whirlaway and 1948 winner Citation.